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The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories. It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established by the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23 March 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences a year later.
CLIMAT is a code for reporting monthly climatological data assembled at land‐based meteorological surface observation sites to data centers. CLIMAT‐coded messages contain information on several meteorological variables that are important to monitor characteristics, changes, and variability of climate. Usually these messages are sent and exchanged via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The world is divided by WMO in 9 regions and Mozambique is in region I and also hosts a CBS Lead Centre.
Region 1 has 354 RBCN stations from 28 countries, where 82 stations are part of GCOS and which are overseen by Mozambique. The monitoring results for these stations are shown from January to December 2012, some countries sent all CLIMAT reports, other countries sent some, and there countries did not send even one CLIMAT report.
We can see that a lot of countries concentrate more on GSN Stations, sending more data from only those stations. The more efficient countries, which send between 90 to 100% of CLIMAT reports, are: CANARY ISLANDS, ST.HELENA ISLANDS, MARTIN DE VIVIES (ILE AMSTERDAM), ILES CROZET AND ILES KERGUELEN. The countries that do not send any CLIMAT reports are: BURUNDI, BOTWANA, DJIBOUTI, ERITREA, LESOTHO, MALAWI, RWANDA, SOMALIA, UGANDA AND SWAZILAND. In Mozambique, we have had difficulties in sending CLIMAT reports for circulation via the GTS and we have used as an alternative the German Meteorological Service, DWD.
The WMO Executive Council Panel of Experts on Polar Observations, Research and Services is in charge of reviewing the Antarctic Observing Network of surface and upper-air stations to meet the requirements of Members and of the World Weather Watch.
The WMO Regional Associations define the Regional Basic Synoptic Networks of surface and upper-air stations adequate to meet the requirements of Members and of the World Weather Watch. The WMO Regional Associations also define Regional Basic Climatological Networks necessary to provide a good representation of climate on the regional scale, in addition to global scale.
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