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The United Nations Children's Fund is a United Nations program headquartered in New York City that provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
Maternal mortality refers to deaths due to complications from pregnancy or childbirth. From 1990 to 2015, the global maternal mortality ratio declined by 44 per cent – from 385 deaths to 216 deaths per 100,000 live births, according to UN inter-agency estimates. This translates into an average annual rate of reduction of 2.3 per cent. While impressive, this is less than half the 5.5 per cent annual rate needed to achieve the three-quarters reduction in maternal mortality targeted for 2015 in Millennium Development Goal 5.
Every region has advanced, although levels of maternal mortality remain unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa. Almost all maternal deaths can be prevented, as evidenced by the huge disparities found between the richest and poorest countries. The lifetime risk of maternal death in high-income countries is 1 in 3,300, compared to 1 in 41 in low-income.
According to UNICEF report, in 2015, seven out of ten people used a safely managed drinking water service.
Universal access to safe drinking water is a fundamental need and human right. Securing access for all would go a long way in reducing illness and death, especially among children. Since 2000, 1.4 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services, such as piped water into the home or a protected dug well. In 2015, 844 million people still lack a basic water service and among them almost 159 million people still collected drinking water directly from rivers, lakes and other surface water sources. The data reveal pronounced disparities, with the poorest and those living in rural areas least likely to use a basic service.
“Safely managed” water services represent an ambitious new rung on the ladder used to track progress on drinking water. In 2015, 5.2 billion people used safely managed services, i.e. accessible on premises, available when needed and free from contamination. A further 1.3 billion used a ‘basic’ water service, i.e. improved sources within 30 minutes per round trip to collect water. Over a quarter of a billion (258 million) used a ‘limited’ service where water collection from an improved source exceeded 30 minutes. In most countries the burden of water collection continues to fall mainly to women and girls.