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1. RD & D stands for Research, Development and Demonstration2. Clean energy and other non-fossil fuel technologies include renewables (solar, wind, biofuels, ocean energy, and hydropower), nuclear, hydrogen and fuel cells, CO2 capture and storage, other power and storage, and energy efficiency
3.Data collected from table 6-54 to 6-64
The Higher Education Research and Development Survey, successor to the Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges, is the primary source of information on R&D expenditures at U.S. colleges and universities. The survey collects information on R&D expenditures by field of research and source of funds and also gathers information on types of research and expenses and headcounts of R&D personnel. The survey is an annual census of institutions that expended at least $150,000 in separately budgeted R&D in the fiscal year.
The National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended, requires that the National Science Foundation initiate and maintain a program for the determination of the total amount of money for scientific and engineering research, including money allocated for the construction of the facilities wherein such research is conducted, received by each educational institution and appropriate nonprofit organization in the United States, by grant, contract, or other arrangement from agencies of the Federal Government, and to report annually thereon to the President and the Congress. To fulfill this requirement, NSF’s National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics has used the data collection system originally designed by the Committee on Academic Science and Engineering of the Federal Council for Science and Technology. Through its Survey of Federal Science and Engineering Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions, NCSES annually collects statistical data from the 19 federal agencies that account for virtually all support for science and engineering (S&E) research and development at educational institutions. Data are also collected on these agencies' obligations to nonprofit institutions. Since its inception, this survey system has been the sole source of data on federal funding to individual institutions for S&E activities and, therefore, attracts a wide audience. These data provide information that enables users to examine patterns of support for individual institutions over time and to compare such patterns with those of other institutions.
The Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) is an annual census conducted since 1957 of all individuals receiving a research doctorate from an accredited U.S. institution in a given academic year. The SED is sponsored by six federal agencies: the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Endowment for the Humanities, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The SED collects information on the doctoral recipient’s educational history, demographic characteristics, and postgraduation plans. Results are used to assess characteristics of the doctoral population and trends in doctoral education and degrees.
The data in these tables are collected biennially through the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) congressionally mandated Survey of Science and Engineering Research Facilities. The FY 2013 survey was sent to research-performing academic research institutions in the United States. For the purposes of this survey, research-performing academic institutions were defined as colleges and universities with $1 million or more in research and development expenditures as determined by the FY 2012 NSF Higher Education Research and Development Survey. Military institutions, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs institutions, and federally funded research and development centers were not included in the survey.Tables provide data on the amount of science and engineering research space at eligible U.S. colleges and universities. Additional data are provided on the condition of facilities; current, planned, and deferred repair and renovation; and current, planned, and deferred construction projects. Selected tables provide information reported by all institutions that participated in the survey.The FY 2011 data related to new construction and sources of funding for new construction shown in the FY 2013 tables have been revised to reflect updated information from the respondent institutions. See the Technical Notes for more information.The tables also provide data on the characteristics of networking and computing capacity. These data focus on high-performance bandwidth, high-performance computing, and data storage capabilities.
The Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering survey is an annual census of all U.S. academic institutions granting research-based master’s degrees or doctorates in science, engineering, and selected health fields as of fall of the survey year. The survey, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health, collects the total number of graduate students, postdoctoral appointees, and doctorate-level nonfaculty researchers by demographic and other characteristic such as source of financial support. Results are used to assess shifts in graduate enrollment and postdoc appointments and trends in financial support.
1. USPTO:- U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 2. IPC:- International Patent Classification 3. Patents are fractionally allocated among regions/countries/economies based on the proportion of residences of all named inventors 4. The EU includes 28 member countries and China includes Hong Kong. 5. Patents are classified under the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) classification of patents
6.Data collected from table 6-36 to 6-50, 6-65 to 6-79